Academic Performance and the Role of Self-directed Learning, Self-esteem, and Grit among Nursing Students

Ryan Michael Flores Oducado


Background: understanding the factors affecting academic performance is important to support and promote the academic success of students. While there have been several studies on nursing students’ academic performance, the role of self-directed learning readiness, self-esteem, and grit among Filipino nursing students have not been well documented.

Purpose: This study aimed to determine the relationship of self-directed learning readiness, self-esteem, and grit to the perceived academic performance of nursing students.

Methods: This correlational research was conducted among undergraduate sophomore nursing students in a higher education institution in the Philippines using adopted research instruments. Spearman’s rho tested the correlation between variables.

Results: The results indicated that self-directed learning readiness (rs=.360, p=.000), self-esteem (rs=.301, p=.000), and grit (rs=.186, p=.023) were significantly related to the academic performance of sophomore nursing students.

Conclusion: psychological resources such as self-directed learning readiness, self-esteem, and grit contribute to students’ academic performance. Strategies that encourage self-directed learning, increase self-esteem, and cultivate grit are needed to support student's academic success in nursing school.


Academic Performance; grit; self-directed learning; self-esteemt nursing students

Full Text:



Alshammari, F., Saguban, R., Pasay-an, E., Altheban, A., & Al-Shammari, L. (2017). Factors affecting the academic performance of student nurses: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 8(1), 60-68.

Alos, S. B., Caranto, L. C., & David, J. J. T. (2015). Factors affecting the academic performance of the student nurses of BSU. International Journal of Nursing Science, 5(2), 60-65.

Arendse, J. P. (2020). Psychosocial factors predicting academic performance of first-year college nursing students in the Western Cape, South Africa (Master’s thesis). University of the Western Cape.

Aryana, M. (2010). Relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement amongst pre-university students. Journal of Applied Sciences, 10(20), 2474-2477.

Belo-Delariarte, R. G., Oducado, R. M. F., & Penuela, A. C. (2018). Terminal assessment of core nursing knowledge in a state university. Asia Pacific Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 6(2), 10-17.

Beauvais, A. M., Stewart, J. G., DeNisco, S., & Beauvais, J. E. (2014). Factors related to academic success among nursing students: A descriptive correlational research study. Nurse Education Today, 34(6), 918-923.

Carson, E. H. (2012). Self-directed learning and academic achievement in secondary online students (Doctoral dissertation). The University of Tennessee.

Cazan, A. M., & Schiopca, B. A. (2014). Self-directed learning, personality traits and academic achievement. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 127, 640-644.

Deyo, Z. M., Huynh, D., Rochester, C., Sturpe, D. A., & Kiser, K. (2011). Readiness for self-directed learning and academic performance in an abilities laboratory course. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 75(2), 25.

Duckworth, A. L., & Quinn, P. D. (2009). Development and validation of the short grit scale (GRIT–S). Journal of Personality Assessment, 91(2), 166-174.

Dube, M. B., & Mlotshwa, P. R. (2018). Factors influencing enrolled nursing students' academic performance at a selected private nursing education institution in KwaZulu-Natal. Curationis, 41(1), 1-7.

Fisher, M., King, J., & Tague, G. (2001). Development of a self-directed learning readiness scale for nursing education. Nurse Education Today, 21(7), 516-525.

Kamali, S., Jafari, E., & Fathi, A. (2009). Correlation between academic achievement and self-esteem in students of Zanjan Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery 1388. Journal of Medical Education Development, 2(2), 17-24.

Mason, H. D. (2018). Grit and academic performance among first-year university students: A brief report. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 28(1), 66-68.

Murphy, L. S. (2020). relationship between grit and academic success in undergraduate and graduate nursing students (Doctoral Dissertation). Allen College.

Oducado, R. M. F., & Penuela, A. P. (2014). Predictors of academic performance in professional nursing courses in a private nursing school in Kalibo, Aklan, Philippines. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, Arts and Sciences, 1(5), 21-28.

Oducado, R. M. F., Frigillano, P. R. S., Gunce, J. J. T., Jover, P. L. B., Meliton, P. N., & Pangilinan, K. T. (2017). Guidance needs of nursing students in Iloilo City, Philippines. PEERS Inc. Multidisciplinary Research Journal, 1(2), 35-47.

Oducado, R. M. F., Cendaña, D. P., & Belo-Delariarte, R. G. (2019a). Institutional competency assessment and other factors influencing the nurse licensure examination. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 8(12), 268-270.

Oducado, R. M. F., Amboy, M. K. Q., Penuela, A. C., & Belo-Delariarte, R. G. (2019b). Correlation between theoretical classroom instruction and related learning experiences: Evidence from a Philippine nursing university. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 8(12), 3666-3670.

Oducado, R. M. F., Sotelo, M., Ramirez, L. M., Habaña, M., & Belo-Delariarte, R. G. (2020). English language proficiency and its relationship with academic performance and the nurse licensure examination. Nurse Media Journal of Nursing, 10(1), 46-56.

Malaga, X. G., & Oducado, R. M. F. (2021). Does senior high school strand matter in nursing students’ academic self-regulated learning and academic performance?. South East Asia Nursing Research, 3(1), 1-7.

Oducado, R. M. F., & Estoque, H. V. (2021). Online learning in nursing education during the COVID-19 pandemic: Stress, satisfaction, and academic performance. Journal of Nursing Practice, 4(2),143-153.

Palisoc, A. J. L., Matsumoto, R. R., Ho, J., Perry, P. J., Tang, T. T., & Ip, E. J. (2017). Relationship between grit with academic performance and attainment of postgraduate training in pharmacy students. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 81(4), 67.

Rosenberg, M. (1965). Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSE). Acceptance and commitment therapy. Measures Package, 61(52), 18.

Slater, C. E. (2018). Self-directed learning readiness of students in health professional preparation programs: Informing teaching and learning approaches (Doctoral Dissertation). The University of Wollongong.

Smith, E. M. (2017). Noncognitive variables to predict academic success among junior year baccalaureate nursing students (Doctoral Dissertation). Syracuse University.

Soriano, G. P. (2016). Relationship between academic performance and the nursing licensure examination of graduates from a city-subsidized university. Philippine Journal of Nursing, 86(1), 56-62.

Torun, E. D. (2020). Online distance learning in higher education: e-learning readiness as a predictor of academic achievement. Open Praxis, 12(2), 191-208.


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 1561
Download PDF : 416


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License  Web Analytics Made Easy - StatCounter View My Stats

JENDELA NURSING JOURNAL is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.