Incidence of Mandibular Fractures as A Complication of Lower Third Molar Extraction: A Rapid Review

Farras Syakira Reiza, Endang Sjamsudin, Harmas Yazid Yusuf

Abstract


Pendahuluan: Pencabutan gigi molar ketiga merupakan salah satu prosedur kedokteran gigi yang sering dilakukan, tetapi bukan berarti resiko dan komplikasinya jarang terjadi. Salah satu komplikasi pencabutan gigi molar ketiga adalah fraktur mandibula. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui insidensi fraktur mandibula sebagai komplikasi pencabutan gigi molar ketiga rahang bawah. Metode: Rapid review ini dilakukan pada Desember 2020-Februari 2021 terhadap artikel berbahasa inggris yang melaporkan insidensi fraktur mandibula akibat pencabutan gigi molar ketiga rahang bawah. Pencarian artikel mengacu pada bagan PRISMA yang dilakukan melalui PubMed, ScienceDirect, dan Google Scholar tanpa membatasi tahun pencarian. Artikel terpilih memenuhi kriteria sesuai dengan kerangka PICO. Penapisan artikel dilakukan dengan memeriksa duplikasi, membaca judul dan abstrak, serta membaca isi keseluruhan teks. Hasil: Sebanyak delapan artikel dengan desain studi observasional dicakup dalam penelitian ini. Insidensi fraktur mandibula sebagai komplikasi pencabutan gigi molar ketiga berkisar antara 0,0046%-3,03%. Fraktur lebih banyak ditemukan pada laki-laki (n=42) daripada perempuan (n=20), pada usia rata-rata di atas 39 tahun, pada gigi-geligi lengkap (n=31) daripada tidak lengkap (n=3), pada gigi impaksi tulang penuh (n=47) daripada impaksi tulang sebagian (n=14), dan pada angulasi gigi horizontal (n=22) atau vertikal (n=20) daripada mesioangular (n=13) atau distoangular (n=6). Simpulan: Fraktur mandibula akibat pencabutan gigi molar ketiga rahang bawah jarang terjadi. Peningkatan kasus ditemukan pada pasien laki-laki, berusia di atas 39 tahun, memiliki gigi-geligi lengkap, gigi impaksi tulang penuh, dan angulasi gigi horizontal atau vertikal. Infeksi pre operatif dan kista merupakan keadaan patologis yang lebih sering ditemukan pada pasien fraktur.

Keywords


fraktur mandibula; pencabutan gigi; molar ketiga; komplikasi; insidensi

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.31983/jkg.v8i2.6900

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